health-gasm:

fit-free-fun:

thehealthywarrior:

weightwatcherqueen:

Terrific Tip: Flip the bell peppers over to check their gender. The ones with four bumps are female and those with three bumps are male. The female peppers are full of seeds, but sweeter and better for eating raw and the males are better for cooking. Isn’t that cool? 

That is awesome!

if this is true this is so freaking cool

Definitely not true. Bell peppers are the fruits of Capsicum annum, and in botanical terms they are berries: a mature fruit formed from a single ovary. There is no such thing as a male or female pepper; they are all matured ovaries that contain seeds.

flora-file:

How to keep your venus fly trap happy (and alive) - by flora-file

After my post about cutting the flower buds off when a venus fly trap flowers, I got some questions about how to care for this plant, and specifically people asked how I could possibly keep one alive for ten years. Just follow these handy dandy tips to keep your venus fly trap chomping small invertebrates for years to come.

Sunlight - Unfortunately this plant is not a houseplant. It needs direct sun to survive, hopefully about 8 hours a day. Mine lives on my patio and gets a few hours of direct light in the morning, and then bright indirect light (which is different than shade) for the rest of the day, and it seems to do fine. Plants that don’t get enough light tend to have elongated leaves, stretched out by the plants hopeless attempt to grow toward some source of light. Happy plants have short leaves and lots of traps. They still need light to photosynthesize no matter how many flies or spiders you feed them.
Distilled or Purified Water - These plants are very sensitive to minerals dissolved in water, especially the fluoride and chloride found in most tap water. Not even spring water is okay, as it contains trace minerals that may be detrimental to the health of the plant. Rainwater will probably work, as long as you don’t live next to a coal burning power plant or some other source of gross air pollution. This may be the most common form of venus fly trap neglect, as people that have killed their fly trap have usually not followed this important rule.
Peat Moss or Coco Coir substrate - The venus fly trap is a bog plant that naturally grows in mucky, nitrogen deprived soil. The whole bug eating behavior arose from the need for additional nitrogen that was severely lacking in the soil. Both peat moss and coco coir have extremely low nitrogen content, making them suitable for the needs of this plant. I used coco coir when I repotted mine a couple years ago, and it worked great. Coco coir is much cheaper than peat moss, and also a better choice environmentally.
A steady diet of…nothing! - Don’t give it fertilizers or chemicals, no Dr Shultz or Miracle Grow. And don’t feed it hamburger either, that’s just wrong. If it is healthy it will catch bugs all by itself, almost like its evolved to catch bugs or something. Keep the substrate constantly moist. I keep mine in a container that doesn’t drain and keep it in standing water constantly. Whatever happens, don’t let it dry out.
If you follow these simple steps your fly trap should grow old of the bulb and long in the tooth. I’m not saying this is the only way to take care of your fly trap, but its how I take care of mine. And after 10 years its still working. Good luck, and garden on!
flora-file:

How to keep your venus fly trap happy (and alive) - by flora-file

After my post about cutting the flower buds off when a venus fly trap flowers, I got some questions about how to care for this plant, and specifically people asked how I could possibly keep one alive for ten years. Just follow these handy dandy tips to keep your venus fly trap chomping small invertebrates for years to come.

Sunlight - Unfortunately this plant is not a houseplant. It needs direct sun to survive, hopefully about 8 hours a day. Mine lives on my patio and gets a few hours of direct light in the morning, and then bright indirect light (which is different than shade) for the rest of the day, and it seems to do fine. Plants that don’t get enough light tend to have elongated leaves, stretched out by the plants hopeless attempt to grow toward some source of light. Happy plants have short leaves and lots of traps. They still need light to photosynthesize no matter how many flies or spiders you feed them.
Distilled or Purified Water - These plants are very sensitive to minerals dissolved in water, especially the fluoride and chloride found in most tap water. Not even spring water is okay, as it contains trace minerals that may be detrimental to the health of the plant. Rainwater will probably work, as long as you don’t live next to a coal burning power plant or some other source of gross air pollution. This may be the most common form of venus fly trap neglect, as people that have killed their fly trap have usually not followed this important rule.
Peat Moss or Coco Coir substrate - The venus fly trap is a bog plant that naturally grows in mucky, nitrogen deprived soil. The whole bug eating behavior arose from the need for additional nitrogen that was severely lacking in the soil. Both peat moss and coco coir have extremely low nitrogen content, making them suitable for the needs of this plant. I used coco coir when I repotted mine a couple years ago, and it worked great. Coco coir is much cheaper than peat moss, and also a better choice environmentally.
A steady diet of…nothing! - Don’t give it fertilizers or chemicals, no Dr Shultz or Miracle Grow. And don’t feed it hamburger either, that’s just wrong. If it is healthy it will catch bugs all by itself, almost like its evolved to catch bugs or something. Keep the substrate constantly moist. I keep mine in a container that doesn’t drain and keep it in standing water constantly. Whatever happens, don’t let it dry out.
If you follow these simple steps your fly trap should grow old of the bulb and long in the tooth. I’m not saying this is the only way to take care of your fly trap, but its how I take care of mine. And after 10 years its still working. Good luck, and garden on!
flora-file:

How to keep your venus fly trap happy (and alive) - by flora-file

After my post about cutting the flower buds off when a venus fly trap flowers, I got some questions about how to care for this plant, and specifically people asked how I could possibly keep one alive for ten years. Just follow these handy dandy tips to keep your venus fly trap chomping small invertebrates for years to come.

Sunlight - Unfortunately this plant is not a houseplant. It needs direct sun to survive, hopefully about 8 hours a day. Mine lives on my patio and gets a few hours of direct light in the morning, and then bright indirect light (which is different than shade) for the rest of the day, and it seems to do fine. Plants that don’t get enough light tend to have elongated leaves, stretched out by the plants hopeless attempt to grow toward some source of light. Happy plants have short leaves and lots of traps. They still need light to photosynthesize no matter how many flies or spiders you feed them.
Distilled or Purified Water - These plants are very sensitive to minerals dissolved in water, especially the fluoride and chloride found in most tap water. Not even spring water is okay, as it contains trace minerals that may be detrimental to the health of the plant. Rainwater will probably work, as long as you don’t live next to a coal burning power plant or some other source of gross air pollution. This may be the most common form of venus fly trap neglect, as people that have killed their fly trap have usually not followed this important rule.
Peat Moss or Coco Coir substrate - The venus fly trap is a bog plant that naturally grows in mucky, nitrogen deprived soil. The whole bug eating behavior arose from the need for additional nitrogen that was severely lacking in the soil. Both peat moss and coco coir have extremely low nitrogen content, making them suitable for the needs of this plant. I used coco coir when I repotted mine a couple years ago, and it worked great. Coco coir is much cheaper than peat moss, and also a better choice environmentally.
A steady diet of…nothing! - Don’t give it fertilizers or chemicals, no Dr Shultz or Miracle Grow. And don’t feed it hamburger either, that’s just wrong. If it is healthy it will catch bugs all by itself, almost like its evolved to catch bugs or something. Keep the substrate constantly moist. I keep mine in a container that doesn’t drain and keep it in standing water constantly. Whatever happens, don’t let it dry out.
If you follow these simple steps your fly trap should grow old of the bulb and long in the tooth. I’m not saying this is the only way to take care of your fly trap, but its how I take care of mine. And after 10 years its still working. Good luck, and garden on!

flora-file:

How to keep your venus fly trap happy (and alive) - by flora-file

After my post about cutting the flower buds off when a venus fly trap flowers, I got some questions about how to care for this plant, and specifically people asked how I could possibly keep one alive for ten years. Just follow these handy dandy tips to keep your venus fly trap chomping small invertebrates for years to come.

  1. Sunlight - Unfortunately this plant is not a houseplant. It needs direct sun to survive, hopefully about 8 hours a day. Mine lives on my patio and gets a few hours of direct light in the morning, and then bright indirect light (which is different than shade) for the rest of the day, and it seems to do fine. Plants that don’t get enough light tend to have elongated leaves, stretched out by the plants hopeless attempt to grow toward some source of light. Happy plants have short leaves and lots of traps. They still need light to photosynthesize no matter how many flies or spiders you feed them.
  2. Distilled or Purified Water - These plants are very sensitive to minerals dissolved in water, especially the fluoride and chloride found in most tap water. Not even spring water is okay, as it contains trace minerals that may be detrimental to the health of the plant. Rainwater will probably work, as long as you don’t live next to a coal burning power plant or some other source of gross air pollution. This may be the most common form of venus fly trap neglect, as people that have killed their fly trap have usually not followed this important rule.
  3. Peat Moss or Coco Coir substrate - The venus fly trap is a bog plant that naturally grows in mucky, nitrogen deprived soil. The whole bug eating behavior arose from the need for additional nitrogen that was severely lacking in the soil. Both peat moss and coco coir have extremely low nitrogen content, making them suitable for the needs of this plant. I used coco coir when I repotted mine a couple years ago, and it worked great. Coco coir is much cheaper than peat moss, and also a better choice environmentally.
  4. A steady diet of…nothing! - Don’t give it fertilizers or chemicals, no Dr Shultz or Miracle Grow. And don’t feed it hamburger either, that’s just wrong. If it is healthy it will catch bugs all by itself, almost like its evolved to catch bugs or something. Keep the substrate constantly moist. I keep mine in a container that doesn’t drain and keep it in standing water constantly. Whatever happens, don’t let it dry out.

If you follow these simple steps your fly trap should grow old of the bulb and long in the tooth. I’m not saying this is the only way to take care of your fly trap, but its how I take care of mine. And after 10 years its still working. Good luck, and garden on!

scipak:

Finding Flowers Gets Harder amid Competing Smells

Insects follow the odors of flowers to find their next nectar nibble, but a new study reports that competing odors, including manmade odors, make this task harder by altering odor perception of the target odor in the insects’ brains. Until now, scientists haven’t known much about how insects discriminate the odors of certain flowers amid the variety of natural and manmade odors in the air. The work of Riffell et al. reveals that both target odor frequency and odor background content dictate the ability of an insect to track a target scent. Changes to the natural odor background, potentially by human-produced odors, could make finding target flowers more difficult for pollinators.

Read more about this research from the 27 June issue of Science here.

[Image courtesy of Kiley Riffell. Please click here for more information.]

© 2014 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All Rights Reserved.

mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.
mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.

mymodernmet:

Japanese artist Azuma Makoto recently ventured to Nevada’s Black Rock Desert to launch a 50-year-old pine bonsai and a colorful floral arrangement into space. The mission, titled Exobotanica, aimed to explore the transformation of the plants into exobiota (extraterrestrial life) in outer space.

clusterpod:

Mycena interrupta

Myrtle Forest, Collinsvale, Tasmania

libutron:

An ever living heart 

Rosette center of a Sempervivum cultivar (Saxifragales - Crassulaceae). Althought the rosettes perish on flowering the plants offset profusely and so the plant persists. Sempervivum means “ever living”.

Photo: ©Nuytsia@Tas

Locality: Queens Domain, Hobart, Tasmania

nybg:

The hottest time of year is made a bit cooler by the lotus and water lily blossoms in our reflecting pools. Here are some gorgeous shots of Nelumbo nucifera (or sacred lotus) and Nymphaea ‘Clyde Ikins’, a water lily—before you check the captions, can you tell which is which? ~LM
nybg:

The hottest time of year is made a bit cooler by the lotus and water lily blossoms in our reflecting pools. Here are some gorgeous shots of Nelumbo nucifera (or sacred lotus) and Nymphaea ‘Clyde Ikins’, a water lily—before you check the captions, can you tell which is which? ~LM
nybg:

The hottest time of year is made a bit cooler by the lotus and water lily blossoms in our reflecting pools. Here are some gorgeous shots of Nelumbo nucifera (or sacred lotus) and Nymphaea ‘Clyde Ikins’, a water lily—before you check the captions, can you tell which is which? ~LM
nybg:

The hottest time of year is made a bit cooler by the lotus and water lily blossoms in our reflecting pools. Here are some gorgeous shots of Nelumbo nucifera (or sacred lotus) and Nymphaea ‘Clyde Ikins’, a water lily—before you check the captions, can you tell which is which? ~LM
nybg:

The hottest time of year is made a bit cooler by the lotus and water lily blossoms in our reflecting pools. Here are some gorgeous shots of Nelumbo nucifera (or sacred lotus) and Nymphaea ‘Clyde Ikins’, a water lily—before you check the captions, can you tell which is which? ~LM
nybg:

The hottest time of year is made a bit cooler by the lotus and water lily blossoms in our reflecting pools. Here are some gorgeous shots of Nelumbo nucifera (or sacred lotus) and Nymphaea ‘Clyde Ikins’, a water lily—before you check the captions, can you tell which is which? ~LM
nybg:

The hottest time of year is made a bit cooler by the lotus and water lily blossoms in our reflecting pools. Here are some gorgeous shots of Nelumbo nucifera (or sacred lotus) and Nymphaea ‘Clyde Ikins’, a water lily—before you check the captions, can you tell which is which? ~LM

nybg:

The hottest time of year is made a bit cooler by the lotus and water lily blossoms in our reflecting pools. Here are some gorgeous shots of Nelumbo nucifera (or sacred lotus) and Nymphaea ‘Clyde Ikins’, a water lily—before you check the captions, can you tell which is which? ~LM

cactusmandan:

Today I decided to repot a few Lithops, so I figured it’d be cool to show you what goes on below the face of Lithops. Lithops have quite a small permanent root system, pretty much just consisting of a stubby, woody taproot. The rest of the root system (which can be huge, usually totally filling the pot they’re in) consists of lots and lots of very fine feeder roots. These fine feeder roots are produced within 24 hours of the plant receiving water and usually die shortly after the root-zone dries out. Cacti do a similar thing, rapidly growing root tissue (particularly root hairs) when water is present and having parts of the roots die back with extended drought, but cacti tend to produce much thicker roots which take longer to die back in periods of drought.
Another interesting thing about Lithops you can see in the first picture is the transition from the coloured, non-photosynthetic top of the leaves to the actively photosynthetic, green lower portion of the leaves. The photosynthetic sides of the leaves are usually below ground for protection. The face of the plant is actually a window, which allows light into the body of the plant (filled with a transparent gel) where it can then be harnessed by the photosynthetic sides of the leaves. As the face isn’t photosynthetic, only the sides of the leaves need to obtain Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, allowing the stomata to be concentrated on the sides of the leaves too. By doing so, the stomata are kept below ground, where it is cooler and so the plant loses less water when the stomata are open. Coupled with CAM (only opening stomata at night and metabolic differences), this allows Lithops (and other succulents which do this kind of thing) to use water extremely efficiently.
Anyway, these were all repotted today. The names of some of these are ridiculously long, so if anyone wants to know what a particular plant is, it’s probably best to message me. The first unpotted plant is a single-headed plant and the second is double-headed. The heads divide when the new leaves grow, after the old single-head reaches a certain size.
cactusmandan:

Today I decided to repot a few Lithops, so I figured it’d be cool to show you what goes on below the face of Lithops. Lithops have quite a small permanent root system, pretty much just consisting of a stubby, woody taproot. The rest of the root system (which can be huge, usually totally filling the pot they’re in) consists of lots and lots of very fine feeder roots. These fine feeder roots are produced within 24 hours of the plant receiving water and usually die shortly after the root-zone dries out. Cacti do a similar thing, rapidly growing root tissue (particularly root hairs) when water is present and having parts of the roots die back with extended drought, but cacti tend to produce much thicker roots which take longer to die back in periods of drought.
Another interesting thing about Lithops you can see in the first picture is the transition from the coloured, non-photosynthetic top of the leaves to the actively photosynthetic, green lower portion of the leaves. The photosynthetic sides of the leaves are usually below ground for protection. The face of the plant is actually a window, which allows light into the body of the plant (filled with a transparent gel) where it can then be harnessed by the photosynthetic sides of the leaves. As the face isn’t photosynthetic, only the sides of the leaves need to obtain Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, allowing the stomata to be concentrated on the sides of the leaves too. By doing so, the stomata are kept below ground, where it is cooler and so the plant loses less water when the stomata are open. Coupled with CAM (only opening stomata at night and metabolic differences), this allows Lithops (and other succulents which do this kind of thing) to use water extremely efficiently.
Anyway, these were all repotted today. The names of some of these are ridiculously long, so if anyone wants to know what a particular plant is, it’s probably best to message me. The first unpotted plant is a single-headed plant and the second is double-headed. The heads divide when the new leaves grow, after the old single-head reaches a certain size.
cactusmandan:

Today I decided to repot a few Lithops, so I figured it’d be cool to show you what goes on below the face of Lithops. Lithops have quite a small permanent root system, pretty much just consisting of a stubby, woody taproot. The rest of the root system (which can be huge, usually totally filling the pot they’re in) consists of lots and lots of very fine feeder roots. These fine feeder roots are produced within 24 hours of the plant receiving water and usually die shortly after the root-zone dries out. Cacti do a similar thing, rapidly growing root tissue (particularly root hairs) when water is present and having parts of the roots die back with extended drought, but cacti tend to produce much thicker roots which take longer to die back in periods of drought.
Another interesting thing about Lithops you can see in the first picture is the transition from the coloured, non-photosynthetic top of the leaves to the actively photosynthetic, green lower portion of the leaves. The photosynthetic sides of the leaves are usually below ground for protection. The face of the plant is actually a window, which allows light into the body of the plant (filled with a transparent gel) where it can then be harnessed by the photosynthetic sides of the leaves. As the face isn’t photosynthetic, only the sides of the leaves need to obtain Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, allowing the stomata to be concentrated on the sides of the leaves too. By doing so, the stomata are kept below ground, where it is cooler and so the plant loses less water when the stomata are open. Coupled with CAM (only opening stomata at night and metabolic differences), this allows Lithops (and other succulents which do this kind of thing) to use water extremely efficiently.
Anyway, these were all repotted today. The names of some of these are ridiculously long, so if anyone wants to know what a particular plant is, it’s probably best to message me. The first unpotted plant is a single-headed plant and the second is double-headed. The heads divide when the new leaves grow, after the old single-head reaches a certain size.
cactusmandan:

Today I decided to repot a few Lithops, so I figured it’d be cool to show you what goes on below the face of Lithops. Lithops have quite a small permanent root system, pretty much just consisting of a stubby, woody taproot. The rest of the root system (which can be huge, usually totally filling the pot they’re in) consists of lots and lots of very fine feeder roots. These fine feeder roots are produced within 24 hours of the plant receiving water and usually die shortly after the root-zone dries out. Cacti do a similar thing, rapidly growing root tissue (particularly root hairs) when water is present and having parts of the roots die back with extended drought, but cacti tend to produce much thicker roots which take longer to die back in periods of drought.
Another interesting thing about Lithops you can see in the first picture is the transition from the coloured, non-photosynthetic top of the leaves to the actively photosynthetic, green lower portion of the leaves. The photosynthetic sides of the leaves are usually below ground for protection. The face of the plant is actually a window, which allows light into the body of the plant (filled with a transparent gel) where it can then be harnessed by the photosynthetic sides of the leaves. As the face isn’t photosynthetic, only the sides of the leaves need to obtain Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, allowing the stomata to be concentrated on the sides of the leaves too. By doing so, the stomata are kept below ground, where it is cooler and so the plant loses less water when the stomata are open. Coupled with CAM (only opening stomata at night and metabolic differences), this allows Lithops (and other succulents which do this kind of thing) to use water extremely efficiently.
Anyway, these were all repotted today. The names of some of these are ridiculously long, so if anyone wants to know what a particular plant is, it’s probably best to message me. The first unpotted plant is a single-headed plant and the second is double-headed. The heads divide when the new leaves grow, after the old single-head reaches a certain size.
cactusmandan:

Today I decided to repot a few Lithops, so I figured it’d be cool to show you what goes on below the face of Lithops. Lithops have quite a small permanent root system, pretty much just consisting of a stubby, woody taproot. The rest of the root system (which can be huge, usually totally filling the pot they’re in) consists of lots and lots of very fine feeder roots. These fine feeder roots are produced within 24 hours of the plant receiving water and usually die shortly after the root-zone dries out. Cacti do a similar thing, rapidly growing root tissue (particularly root hairs) when water is present and having parts of the roots die back with extended drought, but cacti tend to produce much thicker roots which take longer to die back in periods of drought.
Another interesting thing about Lithops you can see in the first picture is the transition from the coloured, non-photosynthetic top of the leaves to the actively photosynthetic, green lower portion of the leaves. The photosynthetic sides of the leaves are usually below ground for protection. The face of the plant is actually a window, which allows light into the body of the plant (filled with a transparent gel) where it can then be harnessed by the photosynthetic sides of the leaves. As the face isn’t photosynthetic, only the sides of the leaves need to obtain Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, allowing the stomata to be concentrated on the sides of the leaves too. By doing so, the stomata are kept below ground, where it is cooler and so the plant loses less water when the stomata are open. Coupled with CAM (only opening stomata at night and metabolic differences), this allows Lithops (and other succulents which do this kind of thing) to use water extremely efficiently.
Anyway, these were all repotted today. The names of some of these are ridiculously long, so if anyone wants to know what a particular plant is, it’s probably best to message me. The first unpotted plant is a single-headed plant and the second is double-headed. The heads divide when the new leaves grow, after the old single-head reaches a certain size.
cactusmandan:

Today I decided to repot a few Lithops, so I figured it’d be cool to show you what goes on below the face of Lithops. Lithops have quite a small permanent root system, pretty much just consisting of a stubby, woody taproot. The rest of the root system (which can be huge, usually totally filling the pot they’re in) consists of lots and lots of very fine feeder roots. These fine feeder roots are produced within 24 hours of the plant receiving water and usually die shortly after the root-zone dries out. Cacti do a similar thing, rapidly growing root tissue (particularly root hairs) when water is present and having parts of the roots die back with extended drought, but cacti tend to produce much thicker roots which take longer to die back in periods of drought.
Another interesting thing about Lithops you can see in the first picture is the transition from the coloured, non-photosynthetic top of the leaves to the actively photosynthetic, green lower portion of the leaves. The photosynthetic sides of the leaves are usually below ground for protection. The face of the plant is actually a window, which allows light into the body of the plant (filled with a transparent gel) where it can then be harnessed by the photosynthetic sides of the leaves. As the face isn’t photosynthetic, only the sides of the leaves need to obtain Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, allowing the stomata to be concentrated on the sides of the leaves too. By doing so, the stomata are kept below ground, where it is cooler and so the plant loses less water when the stomata are open. Coupled with CAM (only opening stomata at night and metabolic differences), this allows Lithops (and other succulents which do this kind of thing) to use water extremely efficiently.
Anyway, these were all repotted today. The names of some of these are ridiculously long, so if anyone wants to know what a particular plant is, it’s probably best to message me. The first unpotted plant is a single-headed plant and the second is double-headed. The heads divide when the new leaves grow, after the old single-head reaches a certain size.

cactusmandan:

Today I decided to repot a few Lithops, so I figured it’d be cool to show you what goes on below the face of Lithops. Lithops have quite a small permanent root system, pretty much just consisting of a stubby, woody taproot. The rest of the root system (which can be huge, usually totally filling the pot they’re in) consists of lots and lots of very fine feeder roots. These fine feeder roots are produced within 24 hours of the plant receiving water and usually die shortly after the root-zone dries out. Cacti do a similar thing, rapidly growing root tissue (particularly root hairs) when water is present and having parts of the roots die back with extended drought, but cacti tend to produce much thicker roots which take longer to die back in periods of drought.

Another interesting thing about Lithops you can see in the first picture is the transition from the coloured, non-photosynthetic top of the leaves to the actively photosynthetic, green lower portion of the leaves. The photosynthetic sides of the leaves are usually below ground for protection. The face of the plant is actually a window, which allows light into the body of the plant (filled with a transparent gel) where it can then be harnessed by the photosynthetic sides of the leaves. As the face isn’t photosynthetic, only the sides of the leaves need to obtain Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, allowing the stomata to be concentrated on the sides of the leaves too. By doing so, the stomata are kept below ground, where it is cooler and so the plant loses less water when the stomata are open. Coupled with CAM (only opening stomata at night and metabolic differences), this allows Lithops (and other succulents which do this kind of thing) to use water extremely efficiently.

Anyway, these were all repotted today. The names of some of these are ridiculously long, so if anyone wants to know what a particular plant is, it’s probably best to message me. The first unpotted plant is a single-headed plant and the second is double-headed. The heads divide when the new leaves grow, after the old single-head reaches a certain size.